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AMA (M2)

Product Description

The AMA (M2) test is a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), for use on IDS automated analyzers. It is used for the quantitative determination of the specific IgG antibodies directed against mitochondrial M2 subtype antigen in human samples of serum or plasma (EDTA and Na-Citrate).

    1. Lindor KD, Gershwin ME, Poupon R, Kaplan K, Bergasa NV, Heathcote EJ. Primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology 2009; 50: 291-308.
    2. Crosignani A, Battezzati PM, Invernizzi P, Selmi C, Prina E, Podda M. Clinical features and management of primary biliary cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jun 7; 14(21): 3313-27.
    3. Giorgini A, Selmi C, Invernizzi P, Podda M, Zuin M, Gershwin ME. Primary biliary cirrhosis: solving the enigma. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005; 1051: 185-93.
    4. Long SA, Quan C, van de Water J, Nantz MH, Kurth MJ, Barsky D, et al. Immunoreactivity of organic mimeotopes of E2 components of pyruvate dehydrogenase: connecting xenobiotics with primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Exp Immunol 2001; 167: 2956-63.
    5. Gershwin ME, Mackay IR. The causes of primary biliary cirrhosis: convenient and inconvenient truths. Hepatology 2008; 47: 737-45.
    6. Kaplan MM, Gershwin ME. Primary biliary cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 1261-73.
    7. Giorgini A, Selmi C, Invernizzi P, Podda M, Zuin M, Gershwin ME. Genetics and geoepidemiology of primary biliary cirrhosis: following the footprints to disease etiology. Semin Liver Dis 2005; 25: 265-80.
    8. James OF, Bhopal R, Howel D, Gray J, Burt AD, Metcalf JV. Primary biliary cirrhosis once rare, now common in the United Kingdom.  Hepatology 1999; 30: 390-4.
    9. Hirschfield GM, Heathcote EJ. Antimitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Liv Dis 2008; 12:323-31.
    10. Liu B, Shi XH, Zhang FC, Zhang W, Gao LX. Antimitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis: a subset of primary biliary cirrhosis. 2008; 28:233-9.
    11. Muratori P. et al. “True” antimitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis, low sensitivity of the routine assays or both? Clin Exp Immunol 154; 2004.
    12. Berg PA, Klein R. Mitochondrial antigens and autoantibodies: from anti M1 to anti-M9. Klin Wochenschr 64, 897-909 (1986).
    13. Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. The autoantibodies of primary biliary cirrhosis: clinico pathological correlations. In: van Venrooij WJ and Maini RN, eds. Manual of biological markers of disease. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers,1996; C8.1:1-18.
    14. Bassendine MF, Fussey SPM, Mutimer DJ, James PFW, Yeaman SJ. Identification and characterization of four M2 mitochondrial autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis. Semin Liver Dis 1989; 9: 124-31.
    15. Miyakawa H et al. Detection of antimitochondrial autoantibodies in immunofluorescence AMA-negative patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using recombinant autoantigens. Hepatology -248; 2001.
    16. Moteki S et al. Use of a designer triple expression hybrid clone for three different lipoyl domain for the detection of antimitochondrial autoantibodies. Hepatology -103; 1996.
    17. Mitchison HC, Bassendine MF, Hendrick A, Bennett MK, Bird G, Watson AJ, James OF. Positive antimitochondrial antibody but normal alkaline phosphatase: is this primary biliary cirrhosis? Hepatology 1986; 6: 1279-84.
    18. Metcalf JV, Mitchison HC, Palmer JM, Jones DE, Bassendine MF, James OF. Natural history of early primary biliary cirrhosis. Lancet 1996; 348: 1399-402.

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AMA (M2)


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